You may hear this type of rattling if you have installed your chain backwards.
Some manufacturers produce directional chains which must be installed in the proper orientation to work correctly. The main difference between them is the chamfer on the edge of the outer plates on each link. When the chain is installed backwards, the chamfer is aligned in opposition to the teeth instead of complementary. The result is the strong clicking sound, and associated feeling through the pedals over each chain link.
Steps To Resolve
Remove the chain, and install it in the correct orientation, with the stamped side facing outward.